Scanning the Constitution, environmental laws and election manifestos of major political parties in Bangladesh: Is Green Party (Germany) model a solution? -04

শুক্রবার, মার্চ ৬, ২০২০ ৪:৫০ AM | বিভাগ : English Articles

United States

Beginning in the conservation movement of the 20th century, today’s environmental movement's roots originate from Murray Bookchin's Our Synthetic Environment, Paul R. Ehrlich's The Population Bomb, and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. American environmentalists have propagated against nuclear weapons and nuclear power in 1960s and 1970s, acid rain in the 1980s, ozone depletion and deforestation in the 1990s, and most recently climate change and global warming.

The United States enacted a number of environmental legislation in the 1970s, such as the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act.


In 1952 the Great London Smog episode caused deaths of thousands of people and pushed UK to create the first Clean Air Act in 1956. In 1957 the first major nuclear accident took place in Windscale in northern England. In 1972, in Stockholm, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment formulated the UN Environment Programme. The EU's environmental policy was officially established by a European Council declaration and the first five-year environment programme was undertaken. The principal concept of the declaration was that prevention is better than the cure and the polluter must pay.

In the 1980s the green parties that were formed a decade before started to have some political success. In 1986, there was a nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s witnessed the fall of communism across central and Eastern Europe, the fall of the [Berlin Wall], and the Union of East and West Germany. In 1992 there was a UN summit in Rio de Janeiro where Agenda 21 was undertaken. The Kyoto Protocol was formed in 1997 which mention specified aims and datelines to lessen global greenhouse gas emissions. In the early 2000s activists thought that environmental policy concerns were undermined by energy security, globalism, and terrorism.

Asia- Middle East

The environmental movement is rich in the less developed world with different ranges of achievements. The Arab world, including the Middle East and North Africa, has different adjustments of the environmental movement. States on the Persian Gulf have huge incomes and depend extensively on the large amount of energy resources in the area. Each country in the Arab world possesses varied combinations of low or high amounts of natural resources and low or high amounts of labor.

The League of Arab States has one specialized sub-committee, of 12 standing specialized subcommittee in the Foreign Affairs Ministerial Committees, which works on environmental issues. Countries in the League of Arab States have manifested an interest in environmental issue. Initial level of environmental sensitization may be the foundation of a ministry of the environment. The year of founding a ministry is also suggestive of level of involvement. Saudi Arabia was the first to enact environmental law in 1992 followed by Egypt in 1994. Somalia is the only country without environmental law. In 2010 the Environmental Performance Index listed Algeria as the top Arab country at 42 of 163; Morocco was at 52 and Syria at 56. The Environmental Performance Index assesses the capacity of a country to proactively manage and safeguard their environment and the health of their citizens.

South Korea and Taiwan

South Korea and Taiwan witnessed same sort of progress in industrialization from 1965-1990 with few environmental control measures. South Korea's Han River and Nakdong River were too polluted by unbridled dumping of industrial waste that they were almost on the verge of being scheduled as biologically dead. Taiwan's doctrine for balanced growth was to desist industrial concentration and inspire manufacturers to establish in the country region. This led to 20% of the farmland being polluted by industrial waste and 30% of the rice grown on the island being infected with heavy metals. Both countries had environmental movement bringing participants from different segments of society. Their demands were connected with issues of employment, occupational health, and agricultural problems.


China's environmental movement is marked by both the rise of environmental NGOs and policy advocacy and spontaneous alliances and demonstrations that often takes place only at the local level. Environmental demonstrations in China are increasingly extending their scope of concerns, making calls for larger participation "in the name of the public."

The Chinese have implemented the capacity of clashes and demonstrations to have success and had led to a rise in disputes in China by 30% since 2005 to more than 50,000 events. Demonstrations include topics like environmental issues, land loss, income, and political issues.

Of all the “environment movements,” the Green Party movement in Germany is really noteworthy considering their length of success over the years. Here I will now project on “Replicating Green Party model”

Replicating Green Party model:

The Green Party was initially established in West Germany as Die Grünen (the Greens) in January 1980. It emanated from the anti-nuclear energy, environmental, peace, new left, and new social movements of the late 20th century.

The Greens have their ideological foundations, declaring the famous Four Pillars of the Green Party as :

1980s: Parliamentary representation at the federal level

In 1982, the conservative section of the Greens got out of the core party and formed the Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP). Those who stayed in the Green party were more pacifist in nature and opposed constraints on immigration and reproductive rights, while supporting the legalization of use of cannabis, emphasizing LGBT rights, and advocating what they depicted as "anti-authoritarian" theories of education and child-rearing. They also had the trend to identify more intimately with a culture of protest and civil disobedience, having frequent clashes with police at protest marches against nuclear weapons, nuclear energy, and the construction of a new runway (Startbahn West) at Frankfurt airport.

After certain achievements at state-level elections, the party won 27 seats with 5.7% of the vote in the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament, in the 1983 federal election. Amidst the crucial political issues at that period was the deployment of Pershing II IRBMs and nuclear-tipped cruise missiles by the U.S. and NATO on West German soil, creating stringent objection within common people as manifested in mass demonstrations. The newly constructed party was capable to draw on this popular movement to mobilize assistance. Partially due to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and to increasing awareness of the threat of air pollution and acid rain upon German forests ("Waldsterben"), the Greens enhanced their share of the vote to 8.3% in the 1987 federal election. By this time, Joschka Fischer became the unofficial leader of the party, which he stayed till resigning from all leadership posts following the 2005 federal election.

The Greens became the target of endeavors by the East German secret police to list the cooperation of members who were interested in aligning the party with the agenda of the German Democratic Republic. The party ranks included several politicians who were later found to have been Stasi agents, including Bundestag representative Dirk Schneider, European Parliament representative Brigitte Heinrich, and Red Army Faction defense lawyer Klaus Croissant. A study conducted by the Greens determined that 15 to 20 members closely associated with the Stasi and another 450 to 500 had been informants.

Until 1987, the Greens comprised a segment that had been involved in pedophile activism (approx. working group "Gays, Pederasts and Transsexuals"). This faction campaigned for repealing § 176 of the German penal code, dealing with child sexual abuse. This group was debated within the party itself, and was noticed as partly liable for the poor election result of 1985. This controversy re-emerged in 2013 and chairperson Claudia Roth stated she greeted an independent scientific investigation on the impact of pedophile activists on the party bythe mid 1980s. In November 2014 the political scientist Franz Walter delivered the final report regarding his research on a press conference.

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